Study of Peripherals, Components of a Computer System


To Study of peripherals, components of a Computer System

Question (1):

What are the basic functional unit are in a computer?

  1. Input Unit.
  2. Output Unit.
  3. Memory Unit.
  4. Arithmetic Logic Unit.
  5. Control Unit.                    

Question (2):

Choose the correct answer?

(a) The task of performing arithmetic and logical operation is performed by

(i) ALU                       (ii) Editor                      (iii) Storage                              (iv) Output

(b) The ALU and CU are jointly known as

(i) RAM                        (ii) ROM                      (iii) CPU                      (iv) none of the above

(c) The process of producing results from the data for getting useful information is called?

(i) OUTPUT               (ii) Input                       (iii) Processing                          (iv) Storage

Question (3):  

(a): List four input devices?

  1. Key Board.
  2. Scanner.
  3. Microphone.
  4. Web Camera.

(b): List four output devices?

  1. Monitor.
  2. Printer.
  3. Projector.
  4. Speaker.

Question (4):

What is CPU and how does it work? Explain briefly?

1)The central processing unit (CPU) of a computer is a piece of hardware that carries out the instructions of a computer program. It performs the basic arithmetical, logical, and input/output operations of a computer system.
2) CPU time (or process time) is the amount of time for which a central processing unit (CPU) was used for processing instructions of a computer program or operating system, as opposed to, for example, waiting for input/output (I/O) operations.

Question (5):

What are the four basic functions performed by the computer?

 The Four basic functions performed by the computer are

  • Input,
  • Processing,
  • Storage,
  • Output.

Question (6):

Differentiate between the following:

(a) RAM and ROM

Data RetentionRAM is a volatile memory which could store the data as long as the power is supplied.  ROM is a non-volatile memory which could retain the data even when power is turned off.
Working type Data stored in RAM can be         retrieved and altered.Data stored in ROM can only be read.
UseUsed to store the data that has to be currently processed by CPU temporarily.It stores the instructions required during bootstrap of the computer.
SpeedIt is a high-speed memory.It is much slower than the RAM.
CPU InteractionThe CPU can access the data stored on it.The CPU can not access the data stored on it unless the data is stored in RAM.
Size and CapacityLarge size with higher capacity.Small size with less capacity.
Used as/inCPU Cache, Primary memory.Firmware, Micro-controllers
CostCostliercheaper than RAM.

(b) SRAM and DRAM:

Used inCache memoryMain memory
DensityLess denseHighly dense
ConstructionComplex and uses transistors and latches.Simple and uses capacitors and very few transistors.
Single block of memory requires6 transistorsOnly one transistor.
Charge leakage propertyNot presentPresent hence require power refresh circuitry
Power ConsumptionLowHigh

Question (7):

Distinguish between bit and byte? b. Define volatile and non-volatile memory?


  • A “bit” is atomic: the smallest unit of storage
  • A bit stores just  a 0 or 1
  • ” In the computer it’s all 0’s and 1’s ” …. bits
  • Anything with two separate states can store 1 bit
  • In a chip: electric charge=0/1
  • In a hard drive: spots of North/South magnetism = 0/1
  • A bit is too small to be much use
  • Group 8 bits together to make 1 byte.


  • One byte = collection of 8 bits
  • Eg. 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0

b. Define volatile and non-volatile memory?

 1.Volatile memory is the type of memory in which data is lost as it is powered-off.Non-volatile memory is the type of memory in which data remains stored even if it is powered-off.
2.  Contents of Volatile memory is stored temporarily.Contents of Non-volatile memory is stored permanently.
3.It is faster than non-volatile memory.It is slower than volatile memory.
4.RAM(Random Access Memory) is an example of volatile memory.ROM(Read Only Memory) is an example of non-volatile memory.
5.In volatile memory, data can be easily transferred in comparison to non-volatile memory.In non-volatile memory, data can not be easily transferred in comparison to volatile memory.

Question (8):

Write True or False?

(a) There are two kinds of computer memory: primary and secondary.                           


(b) The computer can understand decimal system also.                                                  


(c) The storage of program and data in the RAM is permanent.                                            


(d) PROM is secondary memory.                                                                                  


(e) The memories which do not lose their content on failure of power

Supplies are known as non-volatile memories                                                                



            Thus the study of peripherals, components of a computer was studied successfully.

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